1- Introducing the company

Petro Sanat Siah Black Company was established in 2014 with the aim of transferring new oil technologies from European countries to Iran. Petroleum products, petrochemical and drilling industries. The company has a full range of additives for use in pipelines, the most important of which are friction reducing materials (DRA) in hydrocarbon systems and special chemicals for various applications in the oil and gas and petrochemical industries. For use in drilling and cementing wells pointed out.

2- Introducing Drag Reduction Agent (DRA)

The polymer, a high-molecular weight α-alpha polymer, has had a significant impact on reducing manufacturing costs and operating costs in the oil industry, and is a cost-effective and rapid solution to the required flow and pressure changes in transmission pipelines. Crude oil and products are considered. DRA injection at very low concentrations of [1] ppm in crude oil and product pipelines reduces the pressure drop caused by friction. Decreasing the frictional pressure drop can lead to a decrease in the outlet pressure [2], followed by an increase in the capacity of the pipeline.

3- Reasons and benefits of using DRA materials:

1-3 – DRA injection to remove a number of pumps in the oil pumping system

By injecting DRA, the operating pressure of the pumps and turbines is reduced. In some cases, a number of pumps can also be switched off. You can also turn off booster pumps or even a roadside pumping station.
The results of the DRA injection (such as shutting down a number of pumps and pumping stations, removing loops in the pipeline route and not even having to install new pipelines) reduce the huge costs of investing and maintaining the facility.
1-1-3 Turn off the pumps along with increasing the flow rate of the pipeline

For example, in a pipeline with a length of 52 km and a diameter of 8 inches, which has 3 operating electromotors without spare electric motors. The goal is to reduce the pressure in the pipeline and then reduce the working pressure of the electric motors in order to turn off at least one electric motor from three electric motors. The following results were obtained.

Table 1- The effect of 6 liter injection on DRA clock in 52 km and 8 inch pipeline

Injection rate

DRA

(Liters per hour)

Number of electric motors in the circuit

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Dubai

( BPD)

 
0343021500Before injection
6118521500After the injection

 

dra black gold              

Figure 1. Influence of 6 liter injection on DRA clock in 52 km and 8 inch pipeline

Also, due to the fact that there were oil wells ready for operation in that area, by injecting 20 liters per hour, the operating pressure was finally kept constant at 300 psi, and in addition to turning off a pump, the flow rate was 21,500 barrels per day. 34,500 barrels per day increased. (figure 2).

Table 1- The effect of 6 liter injection on DRA clock in 52 km and 8 inch pipeline

Injection rate

DRA

(Liters per hour)

Number of electric motors in the circuit

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Dubai

( BPD)

 
0343021500Before injection
20230034500After the injection

dra 2

Figure 2. Impact of 20 liter injection on DRA clock in 52 km and 8 inch pipeline

2-1-3 Turn off the turbine and reduce the working pressure on other turbines

On the 152-kilometer, 18-inch pipeline, the oil pumping system included three turbochargers. After injecting 25 liters per hour of DRA, after 8 hours of starting the injection, one of the three pumps was turned off. It was removed from two operational turbines (Table 2). As a result of the reduction in operating pressure on the turbochargers, the overhaul time of the overhaul doubled, resulting in a reduction in the maintenance costs of the turbochargers.

Table 2. Impact of 25 liter injection on DRA clock on 152 km and 18 inch pipeline

Turbine numberNGP
Before DRA injectionAfter DRA injection
192%78%
286%It was turned off
383%75%

 

3-1-3 Reduce the number of pump houses by maintaining or increasing pipeline transmission capacity

An example of an operation to remove a pump house and increase production is related to the transmission line of oil products from the Versk pressure breaker to the Lajim pressure breaker. The line had a flow rate of 48,320 barrels per day in Dubai, and the purpose of injecting DRA was to shut down the pump house on the way to Maraghao while maintaining Dubai’s transmission.

Without injecting DRA material and by turning off the mortuary pump, Dubai reduced product delivery to 40,770 barrels per day. 600 barrels per day increased. (Table 3)

The injection of DRA caused the cost of pumping, maintenance and repair of the pump house to be increased, as well as the huge cost of supplying electricity to the pump house, in addition to increasing the flow rate.

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Figure 3 – Deleting the mortuary pump and increasing the flow rate using the DRA material

Table 3. Impact of DRA injection on extinguishing the mortuary pump and Dubai pipeline

Pipeline end pressure

( PSI )

 Output pressure

( PSI )

Dubai diesel

( BPD)

 
42050648.320Before injecting DRA (with a mortar pump)
42050640.770Before injecting DRA (without mortar pump)
42050053.600After injecting DRA (without mortuary pump)

 

2-3 Increasing the exploitation of oil wells

With DRA injection, it is possible to use low pressure wells and sometimes increase the operation of existing wells.
In addition to crude oil transmission lines and single-phase products, DRA injection is also effective in crude oil and two-phase product transmission lines.
As shown in Figure 4, there are two oil wells (wells A and B) with an output pressure of 1400 psi and an oil well (well C) with an output pressure of 1200 psi in the Dalpari region. A 6-inch pipeline will be sent to the Cheshmeh Khosh exploitation unit. The purpose of injecting DRA materials is to reduce the pressure of the transmission pipeline to less than 1200 psi in order to start operating the low pressure well.

Table 4 Pipeline specifications

Table 4 Pipeline specificationsPipeline diameter: 6 inches
Output pressure: 1390 PsiDubai Oil: 14,000 barrels per day
دبی نفت : 14000 بشکه در روز 

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Figure 4 – Schematic of well location and DRA injection point

Results obtained after DRA injection for two-phase pipeline:

In order for the low-pressure well to flow, the pressure in the manifold must be reduced, and the reduction in manifold pressure depends on the reduction of the oil transmission line after the manifold. As a result, by injecting DRA after the manifold, the pressure in the manifold decreases and the low-pressure well enters the production circuit, increasing production by 42%.

Table 5 – Pressure flow changes due to injection of 20 liters of DRA per hour

Injection rate

DRA

(Liters per hour)

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Dubai

( BPD)

 
0139014000Before injection
20119020000after the injection

 

3-3 Maintain safety and prevent premature wear of pipelines

DRA injection in older transmission lines or pipelines that have been reduced due to corrosion and rust resistance ensures the operational safety of the pipeline and prevents the pipeline from exploding.
The use of DRA in pipelines leads to reduced erosion and corrosion and increases the life of pipelines.

For example, by injecting DRA into a 152-kilometer, 18-inch pipeline (Cheshmeh Khosh to Ahvaz 3), with the aim of reducing pressure and increasing line safety and preventing burst piping, the pipeline outlet pressure was reduced by 60% ( Table 2).

Table 6- The effect of 25 liters injection on DRA clock in 152 km and 18 inch pipelines

Injection rate

DRA (liters per hour)

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Dubai

( BPD)

 
060660108000Before injection
2560267108000after the injection

3-4 Increase the utilization of transmission pipelines

By injecting DRA into the pipeline, the capacity of the pipeline can be increased at constant operating pressure.

For example, due to the DRA injection in the 150-kilometer and 24-inch pipeline from Ahvaz to the Abadan refinery, Dubai increased by 69.1%. Initially, in order to maintain the safety of the pipeline, the outlet pressure was reduced by 21% and then the oil flow was increased. (Table 7).

Table 7- Effect of 28 liter injection on DRA clock in 150 km and 24 inch pipeline

Injection rate

DRA (liters per hour)

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Pipeline end pressure

(psi)

Dubai

( BPD)

 
060660108000Before injection
2560267108000after the injection

3-5 Flexible pipeline design according to limitations and needs

In the design and construction of crude oil and product pipelines, DRA injection reduces the diameter and thickness of the transmission pipes. In addition, the use of pumps and turbines has been reduced, which reduces investment costs and energy consumption. Table 8 shows an example of pipeline design that can be used to make changes to pipeline design using the DRA material, and depending on the costs, constraints, and capacity required to transfer the fluid, different concentrations of DRA material used.

+ ExtraFlow DRA

Table 8 – Pipeline design using DRA

800 km pipeline, seamless pipe grade B,

CSt 5 oil viscosity, crude oil with API 35

Pipeline capacity 250,000 barrels per day

Injection rate

DRA
(ppm total)

Diameter pipe(inches)Wall thickness(inches)
MAOP
(psi)
Number of pump housesPipeline length(Km)Design variablesRow
 ——240.3757885160Basic design1
9240.3126565160Reduce wall thickness 12
15240.2815915160Reduce wall thickness 23
20220.3758595160Reduce the diameter of the pipeline 14
50200.3759455160Reduce the diameter of the pipeline 25
22240.3757883267Reduce the number of pump houses6

 

For example, in Table 8, the sixth case is related to the situation where there is a problem with the supply or costs of pumping houses, which can be extinguished by injecting DRA. It also decreases, and by turning off the two pump houses, the amount of oil transfer to 189,000 barrels per day decreases, which increases to 250,000 barrels per day by injecting DRA, while The length of the line has also increased.

In fact, the design of the pipeline can be done using DRA material in different ways and according to the needs of the complex, which is summarized as follows:

Reduce pipeline thickness

Reduce the diameter of the pipeline

Reduce the number of pump houses required by maintaining or increasing pipeline transmission capacity

Reduce the number of moor pumps required in each pump house

[1] parts per million

[2]Discharge Pressure

[3] Booster Pump